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By measuring cosmogenic isotopes, scientists are able to gain insight into a range of geological and astronomical processes.

There are both radioactive and stable cosmogenic isotopes.

Second, creationists appeal to the Omphalos hypothesis and argue that God deceptively created the world to appear old.

This is an unfalsifiable hypothesis, and is unscientific.

This article collects evidences that place a lower limit on the age of the Universe beyond the 6,000 to 10,000 years asserted by most Young Earth creationists (YECs) and the literalist Ussher chronology.

All of this evidence supports deep time: the idea, considered credible by scientists since the early 1800s, that the Earth (and the Universe) is millions or billions of years old.

Certain light (low atomic number) primordial nuclides (some isotopes of lithium, beryllium and boron) are thought to have arisen not only during the Big Bang, and also (and perhaps primarily) to have been made after the Big Bang, but before the condensation of the Solar System, by the process of cosmic ray spallation on interstellar gas and dust.

Because beryllium tends to exist in solutions below about p H 5.5 (and rainwater above many industrialized areas can have a p H less than 5), it will dissolve and be transported to the Earth's surface via rainwater.

As the precipitation quickly becomes more alkaline, beryllium drops out of solution.

Cosmic ray spallation is thought to be responsible for the abundance in the universe of some light elements such as lithium, beryllium, and boron.

This process (cosmogenic nucleosynthesis) was discovered somewhat by accident during the 1970s: models of Big Bang nucleosynthesis suggested that the amount of deuterium was too large to be consistent with the expansion rate of the universe and there was therefore great interest in processes that could generate deuterium after the Big Bang nucleosynthesis.

The evidence against a recent creation is overwhelming.

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